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Array Functions
***************

.[perex]
This page is about the [Nette\Utils\Arrays|#Arrays], [#ArrayHash] and [#ArrayList] classes, which are related to arrays.

→ [Installation and requirements |@home#Installation]


Arrays
======

[api:Nette\Utils\Arrays] is a static class, which contains a handful of handy array functions.

Following examples assume the following class alias is defined:

```php
use Nette\Utils\Arrays;
```


contains(array $array, $value): bool .[method]{data-version:3.2.1}
------------------------------------------------------------------

Tests an array for the presence of value. Uses a strict comparison (`===`)

```php
Arrays::contains([1, 2, 3], 1);    // true
Arrays::contains(['1', false], 1); // false
```


every(iterable $array, callable $callback): bool .[method]
----------------------------------------------------------

Tests whether all elements in the array pass the test implemented by the provided function, which has the signature `function ($value, $key, array $array): bool`.

```php
$array = [1, 30, 39, 29, 10, 13];
$isBelowThreshold = function ($value): bool { return $value < 40; };
$res = Arrays::every($array, $isBelowThreshold); // true
```

See [#some()].


first(array $array): mixed .[method]{data-version:3.2.1}
--------------------------------------------------------

Returns the first item from the array or null if array is empty. It does not change the internal pointer unlike `reset()`.

```php
Arrays::first([1, 2, 3]); // 1
Arrays::first([]);        // null
```


flatten(array $array, bool $preserveKeys=false): array .[method]
----------------------------------------------------------------

Transforms multidimensional array to flat array.

```php
$array = Arrays::flatten([1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6]]]);
// $array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];
```


get(array $array, string|int|array $key, mixed $default=null): mixed .[method]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Returns `$array[$key]` item. If it does not exist, `Nette\InvalidArgumentException` is thrown, unless a default value is set as third argument.

```php
// if $array['foo'] does not exist, throws an exception
$value = Arrays::get($array, 'foo');

// if $array['foo'] does not exist, returns 'bar'
$value = Arrays::get($array, 'foo', 'bar');
```

Argument `$key` may as well be an array.

```php
$array = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red'], 5];

$value = Arrays::get($array, ['color', 'favorite']);
// returns 'red'
```


getRef(array &$array, string|int|array $key): mixed .[method]
-------------------------------------------------------------

Gets reference to given `$array[$key]`. If the index does not exist, new one is created with value `null`.

```php
$valueRef = & Arrays::getRef($array, 'foo');
// returns $array['foo'] reference
```

Works with multidimensional arrays as well as [get() |#get()].

```php
$value = & Arrays::get($array, ['color', 'favorite']);
// returns $array['color']['favorite'] reference
```


grep(array $array, string $pattern, int $flags=null): array .[method]
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Returns only those array items, which matches a regular expression `$pattern`. Regex compilation or runtime error throws `Nette\RegexpException`.

```php
$filteredArray = Arrays::grep($array, '~^\d+$~');
// returns only numerical items
```

Value `PREG_GREP_INVERT` may be set as `$flags`, which inverts the selection.


insertAfter(array &$array, string|int|null $key, array $inserted): void .[method]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Inserts the contents of the `$inserted` array into the `$array` immediately after the `$key`. If `$key` is `null` (or does not exist), it is inserted at the end.

```php
$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::insertAfter($array, 'first', ['hello' => 'world']);
// $array = ['first' => 10, 'hello' => 'world', 'second' => 20];
```


insertBefore(array &$array, string|int|null $key, array $inserted): void .[method]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Inserts the contents of the `$inserted` array into the `$array` before the `$key`. If `$key` is `null` (or does not exist), it is inserted at the beginning.

```php
$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::insertBefore($array, 'first', ['hello' => 'world']);
// $array = ['hello' => 'world', 'first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
```


invoke(iterable $callbacks, ...$args): array .[method]{data-version:3.2.1}
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Invokes all callbacks and returns array of results.

```php
$callbacks = [
	'+' => function ($a, $b) { return $a + $b; },
	'*' => function ($a, $b) { return $a * $b; },
];

$array = Arrays::invoke($callbacks, 5, 11);
// $array = ['+' => 16, '*' => 55];
```


invokeMethod(iterable $objects, string $method, ...$args): array .[method]{data-version:3.2.1}
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Invokes method on every object in an array and returns array of results.

```php
$objects = ['a' => $obj1, 'b' => $obj2];

$array = Arrays::invokeMethod($objects, 'foo', 1, 2);
// $array = ['a' => $obj1->foo(1, 2), 'b' => $obj2->foo(1, 2)];
```


isList(array $array): bool .[method]
------------------------------------

Checks if the array is indexed in ascending order of numeric keys from zero, a.k.a list.

```php
Arrays::isList(['a', 'b', 'c']); // true
Arrays::isList([4 => 1, 2, 3]); // false
Arrays::isList(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // false
```


last(array $array): mixed .[method]{data-version:3.2.1}
-------------------------------------------------------

Returns the last item from the array or null if array is empty. It does not change the internal pointer unlike `end()`.

```php
Arrays::last([1, 2, 3]); // 3
Arrays::last([]);        // null
```


map(iterable $array, callable $callback): array .[method]
---------------------------------------------------------

Calls `$callback` on all elements in the array and returns the array of return values. The callback has the signature `function ($value, $key, array $array): bool`.

```php
$array = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'];
$res = Arrays::map($array, function ($value): string { return $value . $value; });
// $res = ['foofoo', 'barbar', 'bazbaz']
```


mergeTree(array $array1, array $array2): array .[method]
--------------------------------------------------------

Recursively merges two fields. It is useful, for example, for merging tree structures. It behaves as the&nbsp;`+` operator for array, ie. it adds a key/value pair from the second array to the first one and retains the value from the first array in the case of a key collision.

```php
$array1 = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red'], 5];
$array2 = [10, 'color' => ['favorite' => 'green', 'blue']];

$array = Arrays::mergeTree($array1, $array2);
// $array = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red', 'blue'], 5];
```

Values from the second array are always appended to the first. The disappearance of the value `10` from the second array may seem a bit confusing. It should be noted that this value as well as the value `5` in the first array have the same numeric key `0`, so in the resulting field there is only an element from the first array.


normalize(array $array, string $filling=null): array .[method]
--------------------------------------------------------------

Normalizes array to associative array. Replace numeric keys with their values, the new value will be `$filling`.

```php
$array = Arrays::normalize([1 => 'first', 'a' => 'second']);
// $array = ['first' => null, 'a' => 'second'];
```

```php
$array = Arrays::normalize([1 => 'first', 'a' => 'second'], 'foobar');
// $array = ['first' => 'foobar', 'a' => 'second'];
```


pick(array &$array, string|int $key, mixed $default=null): mixed .[method]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Returns and removes the value of an item from an array. If it does not exist, it throws an exception, or returns `$default`, if provided.

```php
$array = [1 => 'foo', null => 'bar'];
$a = Arrays::pick($array, null);
// $a = 'bar'
$b = Arrays::pick($array, 'not-exists', 'foobar');
// $b = 'foobar'
$c = Arrays::pick($array, 'not-exists');
// throws Nette\InvalidArgumentException
```


renameKey(array &$array, string|int $oldKey, string|int $newKey): bool .[method]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Renames a key. Returns `true` if the key was found in the array (since v3.1.3).

```php
$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::renameKey($array, 'first', 'renamed');
// $array = ['renamed' => 10, 'second' => 20];
```


getKeyOffset(array $array, string|int $key): ?int .[method]
-----------------------------------------------------------

Returns zero-indexed position of given array key. Returns `null` if key is not found.

```php
$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'first'); // returns 0
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'second'); // returns 1
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'not-exists'); // returns null
```

.[note]
Prior to nette/utils 3.2, the method was named `searchKey()`. In version 2, it returned `false` instead of `null`.


some(iterable $array, callable $callback): bool .[method]
---------------------------------------------------------

Tests whether at least one element in the array passes the test implemented by the provided callback with signature `function ($value, $key, array $array): bool`.

```php
$array = [1, 2, 3, 4];
$isEven = function ($value): bool { return $value % 2 === 0; };
$res = Arrays::some($array, $isEven); // true
```

See [#every()].


toKey(mixed $key): string|int .[method]{data-version:3.1.3}
-----------------------------------------------------------

Converts a value to an array key, which is either an integer or a string.

```php
Arrays::toKey('1');  // 1
Arrays::toKey('01'); // '01'
```


toObject(iterable $array, object $object): object .[method]
-----------------------------------------------------------

Copies the elements of the `$array` array to the `$object` object and then returns it.

```php
$obj = new stdClass;
$array = ['foo' => 1, 'bar' => 2];
Arrays::toObject($array, $obj); // it sets $obj->foo = 1; $obj->bar = 2;
```


wrap(iterable $array, string $prefix = '', string $suffix = ''): array .[method]{data-version:3.2.2}
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

It casts each element of array to string and encloses it with `$prefix` and `$suffix`.

```php
$array = Arrays::wrap(['a' => 'red', 'b' => 'green'], '<<', '>>');
// $array = ['a' => '<<red>>', 'b' => '<<green>>'];
```


ArrayHash
=========

Object [api:Nette\Utils\ArrayHash] is the descendant of generic class stdClass and extends it to the ability to treat it as an array, for example, accessing members using square brackets:

```php
$hash = new Nette\Utils\ArrayHash;
$hash['foo'] = 123;
$hash->bar = 456; // also works object notation
$hash->foo; // 123
```

You can use `count()` and iterate over the object, as in the case of the array:

```php
count($hash); // 2

foreach ($hash as $key => $value) // ...
```

Existing arrays can be transformed to `ArrayHash` using `from()`:

```php
$array = ['foo' => 123, 'bar' => 456];

$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array);
$hash->foo; // 123
$hash->bar; // 456
```

The transformation is recursive:

```php
$array = ['foo' => 123, 'inner' => ['a' => 'b']];

$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array);
$hash->inner; // object ArrayHash
$hash->inner->a; // 'b'
$hash['inner']['a']; // 'b'
```

It can be avoided by the second parameter:

```php
$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array, false);
$hash->inner; // array
```

Transform back to the array:

```php
$array = (array) $hash;
```


ArrayList
=========

[api:Nette\Utils\ArrayList] represents a linear array where the indexes are only integers ascending from 0.

```php
$list = new Nette\Utils\ArrayList;
$list[] = 'a';
$list[] = 'b';
$list[] = 'c';
// ArrayList(0 => 'a', 1 => 'b', 2 => 'c')
count($list); // 3
```

Over the object you can iterate or call `count()`, as in the case of an array.

Existing arrays can be transformed to `ArrayList` using `from()`:

```php
$array = ['foo', 'bar'];
$list = Nette\Utils\ArrayList::from($array);
```

Accessing keys beyond the allowed values throws an exception `Nette\OutOfRangeException`:

```php
echo $list[-1]; // throws Nette\OutOfRangeException
unset($list[30]); // throws Nette\OutOfRangeException
```

Removing the key will result in renumbering the elements:

```php
unset($list[1]);
// ArrayList(0 => 'a', 1 => 'c')
```

You can add a new element to the beginning using `prepend()`:

```php
$list->prepend('d');
// ArrayList(0 => 'd', 1 => 'a', 2 => 'c')
```


{{composer: nette/utils}}

Array Functions

This page is about the Nette\Utils\Arrays, ArrayHash and ArrayList classes, which are related to arrays.

Installation and requirements

Arrays

Nette\Utils\Arrays is a static class, which contains a handful of handy array functions.

Following examples assume the following class alias is defined:

use Nette\Utils\Arrays;

contains(array $array, $value)bool

Tests an array for the presence of value. Uses a strict comparison (===)

Arrays::contains([1, 2, 3], 1);    // true
Arrays::contains(['1', false], 1); // false

every(iterable $array, callable $callback)bool

Tests whether all elements in the array pass the test implemented by the provided function, which has the signature function ($value, $key, array $array): bool.

$array = [1, 30, 39, 29, 10, 13];
$isBelowThreshold = function ($value): bool { return $value < 40; };
$res = Arrays::every($array, $isBelowThreshold); // true

See some().

first(array $array): mixed

Returns the first item from the array or null if array is empty. It does not change the internal pointer unlike reset().

Arrays::first([1, 2, 3]); // 1
Arrays::first([]);        // null

flatten(array $array, bool $preserveKeys=false)array

Transforms multidimensional array to flat array.

$array = Arrays::flatten([1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6]]]);
// $array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

get(array $array, string|int|array $key, mixed $default=null)mixed

Returns $array[$key] item. If it does not exist, Nette\InvalidArgumentException is thrown, unless a default value is set as third argument.

// if $array['foo'] does not exist, throws an exception
$value = Arrays::get($array, 'foo');

// if $array['foo'] does not exist, returns 'bar'
$value = Arrays::get($array, 'foo', 'bar');

Argument $key may as well be an array.

$array = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red'], 5];

$value = Arrays::get($array, ['color', 'favorite']);
// returns 'red'

getRef(array &$array, string|int|array $key)mixed

Gets reference to given $array[$key]. If the index does not exist, new one is created with value null.

$valueRef = & Arrays::getRef($array, 'foo');
// returns $array['foo'] reference

Works with multidimensional arrays as well as get().

$value = & Arrays::get($array, ['color', 'favorite']);
// returns $array['color']['favorite'] reference

grep(array $array, string $pattern, int $flags=null)array

Returns only those array items, which matches a regular expression $pattern. Regex compilation or runtime error throws Nette\RegexpException.

$filteredArray = Arrays::grep($array, '~^\d+$~');
// returns only numerical items

Value PREG_GREP_INVERT may be set as $flags, which inverts the selection.

insertAfter(array &$array, string|int|null $key, array $inserted)void

Inserts the contents of the $inserted array into the $array immediately after the $key. If $key is null (or does not exist), it is inserted at the end.

$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::insertAfter($array, 'first', ['hello' => 'world']);
// $array = ['first' => 10, 'hello' => 'world', 'second' => 20];

insertBefore(array &$array, string|int|null $key, array $inserted)void

Inserts the contents of the $inserted array into the $array before the $key. If $key is null (or does not exist), it is inserted at the beginning.

$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::insertBefore($array, 'first', ['hello' => 'world']);
// $array = ['hello' => 'world', 'first' => 10, 'second' => 20];

invoke(iterable $callbacks, …$args)array

Invokes all callbacks and returns array of results.

$callbacks = [
	'+' => function ($a, $b) { return $a + $b; },
	'*' => function ($a, $b) { return $a * $b; },
];

$array = Arrays::invoke($callbacks, 5, 11);
// $array = ['+' => 16, '*' => 55];

invokeMethod(iterable $objects, string $method, …$args)array

Invokes method on every object in an array and returns array of results.

$objects = ['a' => $obj1, 'b' => $obj2];

$array = Arrays::invokeMethod($objects, 'foo', 1, 2);
// $array = ['a' => $obj1->foo(1, 2), 'b' => $obj2->foo(1, 2)];

isList(array $array): bool

Checks if the array is indexed in ascending order of numeric keys from zero, a.k.a list.

Arrays::isList(['a', 'b', 'c']); // true
Arrays::isList([4 => 1, 2, 3]); // false
Arrays::isList(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // false

last(array $array): mixed

Returns the last item from the array or null if array is empty. It does not change the internal pointer unlike end().

Arrays::last([1, 2, 3]); // 3
Arrays::last([]);        // null

map(iterable $array, callable $callback)array

Calls $callback on all elements in the array and returns the array of return values. The callback has the signature function ($value, $key, array $array): bool.

$array = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'];
$res = Arrays::map($array, function ($value): string { return $value . $value; });
// $res = ['foofoo', 'barbar', 'bazbaz']

mergeTree(array $array1, array $array2)array

Recursively merges two fields. It is useful, for example, for merging tree structures. It behaves as the + operator for array, ie. it adds a key/value pair from the second array to the first one and retains the value from the first array in the case of a key collision.

$array1 = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red'], 5];
$array2 = [10, 'color' => ['favorite' => 'green', 'blue']];

$array = Arrays::mergeTree($array1, $array2);
// $array = ['color' => ['favorite' => 'red', 'blue'], 5];

Values from the second array are always appended to the first. The disappearance of the value 10 from the second array may seem a bit confusing. It should be noted that this value as well as the value 5 in the first array have the same numeric key 0, so in the resulting field there is only an element from the first array.

normalize(array $array, string $filling=null)array

Normalizes array to associative array. Replace numeric keys with their values, the new value will be $filling.

$array = Arrays::normalize([1 => 'first', 'a' => 'second']);
// $array = ['first' => null, 'a' => 'second'];
$array = Arrays::normalize([1 => 'first', 'a' => 'second'], 'foobar');
// $array = ['first' => 'foobar', 'a' => 'second'];

pick(array &$array, string|int $key, mixed $default=null)mixed

Returns and removes the value of an item from an array. If it does not exist, it throws an exception, or returns $default, if provided.

$array = [1 => 'foo', null => 'bar'];
$a = Arrays::pick($array, null);
// $a = 'bar'
$b = Arrays::pick($array, 'not-exists', 'foobar');
// $b = 'foobar'
$c = Arrays::pick($array, 'not-exists');
// throws Nette\InvalidArgumentException

renameKey(array &$array, string|int $oldKey, string|int $newKey)bool

Renames a key. Returns true if the key was found in the array (since v3.1.3).

$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
Arrays::renameKey($array, 'first', 'renamed');
// $array = ['renamed' => 10, 'second' => 20];

getKeyOffset(array $array, string|int $key)?int

Returns zero-indexed position of given array key. Returns null if key is not found.

$array = ['first' => 10, 'second' => 20];
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'first'); // returns 0
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'second'); // returns 1
$position = Arrays::searchKey($array, 'not-exists'); // returns null

Prior to nette/utils 3.2, the method was named searchKey(). In version 2, it returned false instead of null.

some(iterable $array, callable $callback)bool

Tests whether at least one element in the array passes the test implemented by the provided callback with signature function ($value, $key, array $array): bool.

$array = [1, 2, 3, 4];
$isEven = function ($value): bool { return $value % 2 === 0; };
$res = Arrays::some($array, $isEven); // true

See every().

toKey(mixed $key): string|int

Converts a value to an array key, which is either an integer or a string.

Arrays::toKey('1');  // 1
Arrays::toKey('01'); // '01'

toObject(iterable $array, object $object)object

Copies the elements of the $array array to the $object object and then returns it.

$obj = new stdClass;
$array = ['foo' => 1, 'bar' => 2];
Arrays::toObject($array, $obj); // it sets $obj->foo = 1; $obj->bar = 2;

wrap(iterable $array, string $prefix = '', string $suffix = '')array

It casts each element of array to string and encloses it with $prefix and $suffix.

$array = Arrays::wrap(['a' => 'red', 'b' => 'green'], '<<', '>>');
// $array = ['a' => '<<red>>', 'b' => '<<green>>'];

ArrayHash

Object Nette\Utils\ArrayHash is the descendant of generic class stdClass and extends it to the ability to treat it as an array, for example, accessing members using square brackets:

$hash = new Nette\Utils\ArrayHash;
$hash['foo'] = 123;
$hash->bar = 456; // also works object notation
$hash->foo; // 123

You can use count() and iterate over the object, as in the case of the array:

count($hash); // 2

foreach ($hash as $key => $value) // ...

Existing arrays can be transformed to ArrayHash using from():

$array = ['foo' => 123, 'bar' => 456];

$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array);
$hash->foo; // 123
$hash->bar; // 456

The transformation is recursive:

$array = ['foo' => 123, 'inner' => ['a' => 'b']];

$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array);
$hash->inner; // object ArrayHash
$hash->inner->a; // 'b'
$hash['inner']['a']; // 'b'

It can be avoided by the second parameter:

$hash = Nette\Utils\ArrayHash::from($array, false);
$hash->inner; // array

Transform back to the array:

$array = (array) $hash;

ArrayList

Nette\Utils\ArrayList represents a linear array where the indexes are only integers ascending from 0.

$list = new Nette\Utils\ArrayList;
$list[] = 'a';
$list[] = 'b';
$list[] = 'c';
// ArrayList(0 => 'a', 1 => 'b', 2 => 'c')
count($list); // 3

Over the object you can iterate or call count(), as in the case of an array.

Existing arrays can be transformed to ArrayList using from():

$array = ['foo', 'bar'];
$list = Nette\Utils\ArrayList::from($array);

Accessing keys beyond the allowed values throws an exception Nette\OutOfRangeException:

echo $list[-1]; // throws Nette\OutOfRangeException
unset($list[30]); // throws Nette\OutOfRangeException

Removing the key will result in renumbering the elements:

unset($list[1]);
// ArrayList(0 => 'a', 1 => 'c')

You can add a new element to the beginning using prepend():

$list->prepend('d');
// ArrayList(0 => 'd', 1 => 'a', 2 => 'c')